There are some kinds of substances, that are found in lots of herbs an lots of special substances, that can be found only in few herbs.
Essential oilEssential oils are the smelling substances of a lot of herbs.
The essential oils evaporate into the air without leaving a rest. They work directly to the unconscious and they can free breathing, increase the blood supply and kill bacterias and viruses.
Tannic essenceTannic essences are found in roots, barks and sometimes in leaves. They work astringent. This helps against ulcers, burns and inflammations. You can gargle with tannic essences against throat inflammations.
Bitter essenceBitter essences are a group of substances that taste bitter. They help for the digestion. Liver and gallbladder are strengthened.
MucilageMucilage is a group of substances that become mucus in combination with water. They help against cough and stomach problems.
GlycosidsGlycosids have strong effects on the health of people. Lots of glycosids are poisonous like digitalis, but often very helpful for bad diseases when given from a doctor. But there are also less strong glycosids like salicylic acid in the bark of willows.
SaponinsSaponins act like soap. Together with water they build foam. Saponins work diuretic and may force vomiting. They help other substances to reach the cells of the body.
FlavonoidsFlavonoids are yellow colours, that help vitamins to be used by the body. They can also strengthen the heart, bloodcirculation and the liver. Some of them work diuretic, lower the blood pressure or stimulating the gall bladder. So we see, that flavonoids have very different kind of effects.
AlkaloidsAlkaloids are very strong substances, that can work in different directions. Some of them are very helpful others are deadly poisonous and some are used for comfort like coffein from the coffee.
Typical herbs with alkaloids: Belladonna, Aconite, Celandine, Clavus